Ecological Restoration
Autumn trees

The goal of ecological restoration is to foster the recovery of an area with respect to its health, integrity, and sustainability. Ecosystems require restoration as the direct or indirect result of human activities, or because of natural events such as storms, floods, wildfire, or earthquakes.

Ecological restoration involves a complex combination of scientific and engineering questions with ethical, aesthetic, and metaphysical issues such as: Who bears primary responsibility for the restoration? What standard of beauty is being assumed as a goal? Is a restored landscape "real," or just a fake or an artifact?